April 9, 2021

THE A’s

ABOVE THE FOLD
the page section visible without scrolling down—the exact size depends on screen settings; this is premium ad-rate space but may be worth it.

AD EXTENSIONS
added information in a text ad such as location, phone number, and links.

AD NETWORKING
multiple websites with a single advertiser controlling all or a portion of the sites’ ad space, such as Google Search Network, which includes AOL, Amazon, Ask.com (formerly Ask Jeeves), and thousands of other sites.

AD WORDS
is Google’s paid search marketing program (introduced in 2001), the world’s largest and available in only a handful of countries that run their own similar programs such as Russia (Yandex) and China (Baidu). AdWords uses a Quality Score determined by search relevancy (via click-through rate) and bid to determine an ad’s positioning.

AFFILIATE MARKETING
involves internet marketing with other partner websites, individuals, or companies to drive site traffic, typically with fees based on a Cost per Acquisition (CPA) or Cost per Click (CPC) basis.

AGGREGATE DATA
details how a group of consumers interacts with your marketing or websites and what they do after interacting, offering a comprehensive view of your target market as a whole, as opposed to the behavior of individuals.

ALGORITHM
is a trade-secret formula(or formulas) used by search engines to determine search rankings in natural or organic search. Search engines periodically crawl sites (using “Spiders”) to analyze site content and value-rank your site for searches.

ALT TAGS
are embedded HTML tags used to make website graphics viewable by search engines, which are otherwise generally unable to view graphics or see text they might contain.

AMP
is an acronym for the Accelerated Mobile Pages Project, announced by Google in 2015 as an open-source initiative to create content that loads quickly on mobile devices and consisting of 3 parts: AMP HTML, AMP JS & Google AMP Cache.

ANALYTICS
is collected data about a website and its users (also called Web Metrics) by programs that commonly offer a variety of information on page views, website paths, time on site, and other data. The data can help sites improve user experience and increase site ROI.

ANCHOR TEXTS
is the clickable words in a hypertext link (the underlined blue part); using a site’s keywords in the anchor text is highly desirable, in general.

AUTOMATED RULES
is a Google Ads feature that automatically adjusts variables such as ad status and bids based on specific parameters set by the advertiser.

AVERAGE POSITION
is the position in which your ad commonly appears on a search results page.

ADVOCACY MARKETING
uses customer voices to communicate about a company and its products and build an authentic and trustworthy brand. For example, quotes from user reviews help potential customers identify with current users’ experience and issues and learn more holistically about the company through 3rd party viewpoints and not just brand messaging.

THE B’s

BACKLINKS
from other websites point users to pages on your site and are used by search engines to judge a site’s credibility; backlinks (which can represent a variety of possible linking strategies) are considered confirmations of a site’s reliability and authority on a particular subject, making link building a vital part of Search Engine Optimization.

BAIDU
is the largest non-US based search engine in the world (although created in the United States). Based in China, Baidu offers paid-search service and sites can be optimized for Baidu.

BANNERS
are visual ads appearing anywhere (top, sides, bottom) on websites that are a staple of internet marketing and that can be static, animated, or clickable and interactive; two of the most popular pay structures are Cost per 1,000 Impressions (CPM) and flat costs for a specified period of display time.

BEACON TECHNOLOGY
allows companies to connect and engage wirelessly with consumers via mobile devices, using Bluetooth to deliver geo-targeted, personalized messages and in-range push notifications ; this technology can offer also analytics data based on digital steps taken to reach a purchasing decision.

BEHAVIORAL TARGETING
targets ads to viewers based on past behaviors including search and purchases through the use of cookies, and is becoming increasingly refined and sophisticated.

BING
is Microsoft’s search engine, replacing live.com in June 2009.

BLOGS
are online personal writing that can be lists, how-tos, journals, advocacy, information, or reviews. Short for web log, blogs are updated regularly and presented in reverse chronological order, with the most recent entries at the top of a page; the most popular blogging platform is WordPress.

BOUNCE RATE
is the percentage of site visitors who only click on 1 page and leave the site.

BRAND STACKING
happens when a single site or domain gets multiple page-one listings in a search, sometimes as many as 8 of the top listings; something rare before 2010, when Google tweaked its algorithm to allow Brand Stacking.

BROAD MATCH
is the default search result and in web ads is best when trying to reach the largest possible audience; your ad displays if a search term contains your keywords in any arrangement or order, or includes synonyms, related searches, or other relevant variations.

BUYER PERSONA
is a hypothetical profile of your target customers that offers valuable reference points for digital marketing and is constructed from behavioral psychology, industry research, customer data, and demographics; this persona helps in constructing site layout, creating new content, and targeting marketing strategies.

THE C’s

CANONICAL TAG
helps search engines differentiate between two similar or identical URLs; this tag is used most commonly for products or content accessible through multiple URLs or websites (this tag appears in HTML head code using the attribute rel=canonical).

CASCADING STYLE SHEETS (CSS)
determine how HTML elements such as fonts, layouts, and colors display on a site: external style sheets are in CSS files to allow smaller file sizes and create faster load times—improving user experience and site searchability, and site maintenance.

CCTLDS
are “Country-code” TLD‘s designating the country a site is focused on or based in: for example, Google Canada is google.ca–sometimes these ccTLD’s are two sets of letters separated by a period (e.g. “co.uk” for the UK or “com.au” for Australia) and sometimes a single set of letters (e.g. “.fr” for France). The best way to target other countries is via separate websites on unique ccTLD’s.

CLICK THROUGH RATE
is a common measurement tool for ad effectiveness documenting the number of times viewers actually click on an ad versus the number of times the ad is displayed. Click through can be a result of placement, content, relevance and other factors.

CLOAKING
is showing different versions of a web page to search engines and to users, and sites using cloaking may be penalized—dropped in search rankings—or banned from particular search engines.

CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (CMS)
allow web sites to edit and add content without specialized programs and programming knowledge: CMS can be edited by anyone with basic word processing knowledge and include WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla.

CONTENT MARKETING
is the practice of creating and distributing content targeted to the needs and values of a defined audience of prospective customers, rather than traditional online advertising methods focused more broadly and generally.

CONTEXTUAL ADVERTISING
matches web content with advertised search terms and allows ad placement in conjunction with related articles and web content, a service offered by major search engine advertisers

CONVERSION RATES
are rates of conversion of site visitors into buyers, survey completers, newsletter subscribers, or other web site goals and metrics.

CONVERSION RATE OPTIMIZATION\
is maximizing whatever conversions a site desires, using a variety of tactics in site development, marketing, and SEO.

COST PER ACQUISITION
is an ad fee structure in which the advertiser pays per particular event such as a registration or sale.

COST PER CLICK (CPC)
is one of the most common fee structures for search engine and other web advertising and marketing; a negotiated set fee is charged each time a viewer clicks on an ad.

COST-PER-IMPRESSION (CPM)
is another common internet ad program typically used for banner advertising, with advertisers paying a set fee for every 1,000 impressions an ad receives.

CRAWLER
(also called a spider or bot) is a search engine component that gathers web listings by automatically “crawling” the Web, following links to pages and copying them for storage in an index.

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM)
describes software creating organized ways to manage customer relations: for example, a searchable database of detailed customer information that can be used to target marketing and match customers with products, services, or information.

THE D’s

DAY PARTING
means targeting ads to different times and days of the week and changing bids or ad copy depending on time (either manually or automatically on some platforms such as Google Ads); for example, holding your advertising between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m. on Mondays.

DESCRIPTION TAGS
are HTML tags offering a brief site description visible to search engines; a short summary that should include main page keywords.

DIGITAL MARKETING FUNNEL
is a 6 stage process of attracting and retaining customers through search engine marketing:

  1. Exposure—SEO and PPC ads
  2. Discovery—user clicks through to your site
  3. Consideration—user considers a product
  4. Conversion—user makes a purchase or completes another action that turns them into a customer
  5. Customer Relation Maintenance—business maintains good customer relations with engagement, communication, and customer service
  6. Retention—business retains customers by offering value, good service, and positive customer experience not provided by competitors

DISPLAY URL
is the URL (up to 35 characters in Google Ads) displayed with ads: it doesn’t have to be a destination URL, but should use the same root domain.

DIRECTORIES
are search engines displaying business listings gathered through submissions or pulled from data aggregators, or some combination of the two; these can help strengthen local SEO and provide user-relevant referral information and possible back links.

DOMAIN AUTHORITY
is a 0-100 score (developed by Moz) predicting a site’s search ranking often used in SEO to compare sites and track improvement over time.

DOORWAY PAGE
(also called bridge pages, gateway pages, and jump pages).is a page built to rank high in organic (non-paid) search listings offering little information for visitors; such as only a brief call to action such as “Enter Here” or automatically sending the visitor through the doorway page—which, with cloaking, may never be seen. Although some search engines have guidelines prohibiting doorway pages, paid inclusion search programs commonly include them.

DRIP MARKETING
is email messages sent one at a time, at pre-determined intervals, to prospective customers as they move through sites and pages toward a purchase.

DYNAMIC RETARGETING
is ad-targeting to repeat visitors containing images and information about an item they viewed.

THE E’s

EDGERANK
is a Facebook algorithm that ranks pages to determine which posts from those accounts show up in user Newsfeeds linked to those pages or in pages or profiles tagged in the posts. A higher EdgeRank increases the likelihood a post will appear in connected Newsfeeds. Facebook does not use this term internally nor does it release Edgerank data publicly.

EMAIL CAMPAIGN SYSTEM
allow organizations to send emails to lists with a standard look and feel; email remains a useful and cost-effective business marketing and communication tool.

E-MARKETING
is a synonym for online marketing, internet marketing, or digital marketing: web marketing and sales strategies such as SEO, PPC, retargeting, social advertising, etc.

ENHANCED BIDDING
is a Google Ads feature that allows real-time variable keyword bidding to increase conversions, allowing advertisers to increase bids up to 30% over their initial keyword bid ceiling but still more heavily weighted toward cost per click.

EXACT MATCH
is the most specific search match: an ad will only display if a search contains exact keywords in a particular order.

EXPANDED TEXT ADS (ETA)
are mobile-optimized ads with twice the number of characters of standard text ads; they allow two 30-character headline fields, one 80-character description field, and two 15-character paths in the display URL field.

THE F’s

FACEBOOK RETARGETING
is most often used to refer to ads served to previous other-site visitors while those visitors are on Facebook, a Facebook ad feature since 2012.

FEED
is a popular way (in XML language using either RSS or Atom formatting) for sites to communicate directly with users, who connect via a simple button automatically to a site anytime they’re online.

FINAL URL
is the URL for the page to which clicking on an ad sends a user, which can be different from a Display URL but has to use the same root domain.

FORUM
is an interactive space where users with common interests or backgrounds gather to post and share information and communicate directly with each other either synchronously or asynchronously.

THE G’s

GEO TARGETING
or targeting users by physical location is a feature of all major search engines in Pay-Per-Click services and uses IP addresses to identify locations.

GMAIL SPONSORED PROMOTIONS (GSP)
are custom ads in Gmail that can be created in Google Ads; advertisers pay when an email recipient clicks to expand the inbox ad; then any clicks on the expanded ad are free.

GOLDEN TRIANGLE
is the area viewers’ eyes most often look at in search engine results pages–an “F” shape according to tracking studies, and an important consideration for ad placement.

GOOGLE ADWORDS EDITOR
is a free application allowing advertisers to manage multiple accounts at the same time, make bulk edits, move content between accounts, work offline,  and more.

GOOGLE FORWARDING NUMBER
is a unique phone number replacing a company’s regular landing page number.

GOOGLE MERCHANT CENTER
is a program through which sites can upload retail data for Google Shopping and other Google services.

GOOGLE MY BUSINESS
in Google Maps is a free listing that links businesses to local search.

GOOGLE PARTNER
is a certification program establishing site reliability for shoppers and viewers.

GOOGLE PENGUIN UPDATE
was a 2012 Google program to identify sites that used questionable or fraudulent link-building tactics to manipulate search results; a general rule of thumb for legitimate businesses is to avoid obtaining backlinks by buying them or using other deceptive practices.

GOOGLE PANDA UPDATE
was a 2011 algorithm update measuring length of content connected with a keyword on a site as a measure of site quality; sites with more content would be ranked higher than those with less content. Penguin has since been incorporated  into Google’s ongoing algorithm.

GRAPHICAL SEARCH INVENTORY
is advertising that can be synchronized to search keywords, such as pop-ups, browser toolbars, and rich media.

GROWTH HACKING
is use of multiple simultaneous marketing strategies and fast product development strategies to jump start company and site growth and customer acquisition: common among start-ups, growth hacking typically includes SEO, PPC, social media advertising and retargeting.

THE H’s

HASHTAG
or “pound sign” (officially the “octothorpe”) is a way to group tweets or images on social media and typically placed directly in front of (with no extra space) whatever text is being grouped or classified.

HEADER
is a searchable HTML tag that ideally includes page titles that clearly identify page content and themes and theme and is organized according to page organization, so main titles use <h1>, subheads or sub-titles use <h2>, etc.

HTML
is HyperText Markup Language, the standard programming language used in creating websites; HTML understands other coding language and developers can use those to develop sites beyond the limits of HTML.

HYPERLINKS
are clickable direct connections to other web pages usually just called “links” and highlighted in blue and underlined.

THE I’s

IMAGE MAPS
are hyperlinked clickable regions on images making websites more functional  and user-friendly and allowing search engines to read images.

IMPRESSIONS
represent the number of times a user views a page displaying an ad; which is not the same as actually seeing an ad, and is why why understanding of viewing patterns and ad placement are vital considerations when using cost per 1,000 impressions advertising programs.

INBOUND MARKETING
is marketing that drives prospective customers to a website on their own, usually because of attractive site content, in contrast to traditional paid advertising promotions; tactics include SEO, content marketing, blogging, and email marketing to self-curated lists (e.g., when users sign up for a mailing list).

INDEX
is information held by search engines that users can access; this is copies of pages in crawler-based search engines and site summaries in human-built directories.

INFLUENCE MARKETING
is the use of internet celebrities, social media influencers, and online community leaders by a business to reach specific markets or audiences.

INTERNET MARKETING
is all the various tools strategies and tactics used to reach internet users.

Internal linking
uses hyperlinks to connect pages on the same web site, improving site navigation and ease of use.

INTERSTITIAL ADVERTISING
appears when a user moves between pages on a site; typically displaying near a hyperlink that allows the user go directly to originally desired page.

INSTAGRAM
a social media site owned by Facebook allowing users to create and upload images and allowing users to follow other users.

THE J’s

JAVASCRIPT
is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language originally developed by NetScape used mostly to enhance user experience on websites. with enhanced functionality.

THE K’s

KEYWORDS
are search terms—words or phrases that might be used in a search—that websites bid on through search engine marketing programs to attract site visitors; they are a fundamental part of Search Engine Optimization used in site content and meta tags.

KEYWORD DIFFICULTY
(also called KPI) is a common SEO metric measuring how much on-page and off-page marketing will be required for a keyword phrase to rank highly in a search; most commonly a 1-100 ranking, with 1 meaning top ranking is least difficult to achieve, and 100 meaning most difficult.

KEYWORD STUFFING
is a now mostly banned method of influencing search results from the early days of search engines, in which websites put commonly used words regardless of site relevancy into titles, descriptions and keyword tags; changes in search engines make this practice now mostly useless.

KEYWORD TAGS
are on-site HTML tags defining keywords that were commonly used when search engines were less sophisticated in weighting search results; as with keyword stuffing, this practice is today mostly useless in boosting search results.

THE L’s

LANDING PAGE
is the first website page a user “lands on” after clicking on an ad; it can be any page on a site, but ideally it should be a specialized page with information tailored to this particular user’s wants and needs.

LINK BUILDING
is the obtaining of backlinks taking a user to a business’s website from another site and is key to successful SEO; however, because of search algorithm changes this is increasingly difficult. Link building today must be done organically (through practices such as content creation) with sites relevant to the link-building business, but successful link building means higher search rankings.

LINK JUICE
is equity or search value passed to a site via the quality of its backlinks (either internal or external); high authority, high traffic sites more positively affect rankings than low authority, low traffic sites.

LINK POPULARITY
is measured by the number of sites that link to a site, how popular those linking sites are, and how closely linking site content relates to the site: this is a big part of SEO, along with the value of the sites a site links out to.

LINK RECLAMATION
is outreach communication to build connection to other sites and earn backlinks for a site most commonly used during re-branding; when domain names change; and after online mentions of a site (in a blog, for example) that don’t include a backlink.

LOCAL SEARCH
is a set of processes allowing users to find businesses and websites within a specific geographic range such as local search features on search engines and online directory sites; this is currently a big growth area in search but requires different tactics than those of general Search Engine Optimization.

LOCAL BUSINESS LISTINGS
are features on major search engines in which local listings with maps are top-of-page results for locally targeted searches—businesses can submit listing requests or claim existing listings if the search engine is already adding the company to search results, and having a website is usually not required for listing.

LONG TAIL KEYWORDS
can account for as much as 60% a site’s search traffic, and rather than common keywords are longer phrases that are easier and faster for search engines to rank.

THE M’s

MARKETING AUTOMATION
is single-platform software suites of popular online marketing strategies like email, social media, CRM, and SEO.

MENTION
is one website getting noticed on another site; a good way to build backlinks or do link reclamation and boost site rankings in search.

META SEARCH ENGINE
is a search engine that doesn’t crawl the web but instead gets listings from other search engines.

META TAGS
such as header tags and alt tags play an important role in Search Engine Optimization (although are less important than in earlier eras of the web) and are HTML that highlights site keywords in ways that attract search engines.

MICROBLOGGING
is information- or comment-posting in 140- or 280-character messages via mobile device or the web: Twitter is currently the dominant microblogging platform although others are growing in popularity.

MICROSITES
are targeted satellite sites (for events, specialized services, or specific content) independent of a business or online publisher’s main website; while independent, microsites drive specific traffic for sales, lead generation, or referrals to the parent site.

MOBILE FRIENDLY
means websites that are seamlessly accessible and fully functional on mobile devices—where internet access increasingly occurs today; there are 3 variations of mobile-friendly sites:

  1. Responsive Web Design: serves the same HTML code on the same URL regardless of device and adapting to variable screen size.
  2. Dynamic Serving: while using the same URL for any device generates different HTML depending on the device and the user’s browser.
  3. Separate URLs: serves different HTML to each device using separate URLs and redirecting the user’s device to the appropriate URL.

NATURAL LISTINGS
(also called “organic search” or “organic results”) are non-advertisement search listings; while some search engines charge fees for inclusion in natural listings, most currently do not. Two of the most important natural listing factors are content relevance and link popularity.

NEUROMARKETING
is marketing that incorporates neuroscience into the prediction of consumer behavior, especially focusing on the brain’s “rewards center” and creating campaigns that will affect consumers on a subconscious innate level.

NANO INFLUENCERS
is a social influencer with 1,000 to 5,000 followers; such influencer sponsorships generally are less expensive and generate a higher follower engagement level than influencers with 10,000 or more followers, whose fees are exponentially increasing.

THE O’s

OPT-IN
is a kind of interactive feature in which a person submitting information on a site must specifically request he or she be contacted or added to a list; these types of registrations typically increase costs per acquisition for campaigns but can produce higher percentages of interested leads.

OPT-OUT
is a kind of interactive feature in which a person submitting information will automatically receive followup contact from a site, but can opt out of receiving newsletters, calls, email, or other contact at any time.

OUTBOUND LINKS
are links on a page leading to another web page, whether on the same site or on a different website.

THE P’s

PAGERANK
is a value assigned by Google (and all independent search engines have their own version of PageRank) to pages and sites based on its search algorithm; while Google provides an external PageRank from 1-10 for any site, this is not the same as Google’s internal PageRank.

PAID INCLUSION
is a fee-based (on either a CPC or per-URL basis) advertising program that includes pages in a search index, but does not guarantee any particular ranking; for example, directories may list pages and sites not based on position but based on relevance to a category.

PAID LISTINGS
are search listings sold to advertisers by search engines through placement or inclusion programs, in contrast to organic (natural) listings (no fee).

PAID SEARCH
lets advertisers pay for inclusion on the search results pages for specific keywords or phrases; also called paid placement, pay per click, or sometimes search engine marketing, paid search often involves an auction environment and a cost-per-click (CPC) fee for desired keywords. Any good paid search company (Google and Bing currently dominate this market) should offer a comprehensive set of search terms, create accounts, write ad copy, build landing pages, manage bidding, and do ad testing.

PAY-FOR-PERFORMANCE
is a synonym for pay-per-click, emphasizing that advertisers only pay for ads that deliver traffic; contrasting with CPM-based ads that require payment regardless of performance.

PAY PER CLICK (PPC)
is the most common type of online advertising, used by most major search engines and social media platforms.

PERMISSION MARKETING
is similar to opt-in marketing and requires user consent before contact, and sometimes even before exposure to advertising—a response to contemporary consumer wariness concerning advertising. Search engine marketing by definition is a type of permission marketing as it means only advertising to users already searching for a particular service or product matching that being advertised.

PHRASE MATCH
is a type of ad fee bid for a search match type between broad and exact, in which ads display for either exact phrase matches or close variations in search listings.

POP-UNDER
advertisements open in new browser windows when a page is visited or some other user action is taken and are generally considered more palatable as the new window does not interrupt viewing of the current page.

POP-UP
advertising is a controversial tactic in which new windows open and partially or entirely block a current browser window; some search engines now limit or ban pop-up ads.

PREMIER GOOGLE PARTNER
is a designation (as of 2016) recognizing online entities that meet particular certification and performance requirements that boosts page rank.

PRESS OPTIMIZATION
is optimizing news releases for internet search and is analogous to Search Engine Optimization for websites, focusing more on keywords in content that optimize notice by blogs and new media.

PRICE EXTENSIONS
are information displaying in text ads (for mobile devices) on products, services, and costs.

PUSH NOTIFICATIONS
are pop-up messages on mobile device apps coming from a particular app or organization, but push notifications can be received on other devices also and are used to keep users engaged with an app or organization.

THE Q’s

QUERY
typically is another term for “keyword” or “search term.” In Google Ads, “search query” reports compare the terms searchers use to click on ads to the actual keywords in an ad account, and the two sets of words may or may not be the same.

QUALITY SCORE (QS)
is a Google Ads metric using various ad account components (e.g. campaigns, ads) to give a score for search keywords on a 1 to 10 scale, with higher scores meaning lower costs for the advertiser. While the exact formula is not public, the three main components are: ad quality (actual click through rate compared to ad position and expected click through rate); ad relevance (including the use of ad extensions); and landing page user experience.

THE R’s

RANK
is where a site is listed in search results; also known as position, the higher the rank, the better.

RANKBRAIN
is 2015 Google algorithm update incorporating machine learning (artificial intelligence) into Google search to better understand how internet search is used, and reportedly the third most important search ranking tool in the algorithm.

REAL SIMPLE SIMPLIFICATION (RSS)
is a technology used by Reddit and other sites that allows information to be easily and quickly shared on websites or given directly to users; RSS is new enough that marketers are still debating how best to use this technology.

RECIPROCAL LINK
is an exchange in which two sites will collaborate to each display a link to the other site somewhere on their pages; generally much less desirable in SEO than a one-way inbound link.

RESPONSIVE ADS
are ads that automatically adjust their size, appearance, and format to fit available ad space, appearing as a banner on one site and a dynamic text ad on another, for example, as needed.

RETARGETING
involves the placing of cookies on a user’s browser, after they perform some action on a web site, so an advertiser can use a retargeting network to have ads display on that user’s browser on other sites the user visits as that are part of that retargeting network.

RETURN ON INVESTMENT
in marketing is the ratio of profit resulting from ads vs ad expenses.

RICH MEDIA
are web ads or pages that are animated or interactive, in contrast to static ads or pages.

ROBOTS.TXT

is a file extension used to control which web pages on a site are indexed by search engines.

RUN OF SITE (ROS)
is a type of ad contract allowing an ad to appear on any page, usually in any available open placement, of a website.

THE S’s

SCHEMA MARKUP
is HTML code that helps search engines understand the purpose and content of a website, pairing words with values that help in indexing and create more targeted and beneficial search results.

SCRAPING
is the copying of content from one site for use on another: intellectual property theft; scraping sophistication has increased online, as have defenses against scraping.

SEARCH ENGINES
are internet destinations for users wanting to do searches (such as Google, Firefox, Edge, Bing, Yahoo). Generally there are 2 ways for sites to appear search listings: natural or organic search (free) or paid search, with natural listings based on search engines search algorithms and paid search listings appearing alongside or as ad listings, typically identified as such, within a search. The most common paid search program is Pay per Click (PPC).

SEARCH ENGINE MARKETING (SEM)
is basically all forms of marketing involving search engines, with the most common being Search Engine Optimization and paid search; sometimes this term refers to paid search exclusively.

SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION (SEO)
is the series of processes and tactics a web site can do to optimize its appearances in search listings and boost rankings in searches; two site characteristics that all major search engines rank highly are link popularity (how many websites link to you, and how highly those sites are ranked) and relevant content (how pertinent your site or a particular page on it is to a search).  SEO is sometimes used to refer to businesses that perform SEO services for web clients.

SEARCH ENGINE REPUTATION MANAGEMENT (SERM)
is also called online reputation management and is self-explanatory; better brand positioning and reputation protection in response to criticism or crisis through Search Engine Optimization, paid search, press optimization, blogging, social media, and other online public relations and marketing tactics; the key to SERM is starting early, before a crisis happens.

SEARCH ENGINE RESULTS PAGE (SERPS)
is a web page displayed by any search engine for a search, and will containing both natural listings and paid search results; the ranking of a site will depend on both SEO and SEM.

SEARCH RETARGETING
is retargeting in which an advertiser is able to serve ads to users searching for specific keywords who have never visited the advertiser’s site.

SEARCH TERM
is a word or group of words or a phrase entered into a search engine by users; for a web site, determining the most appropriate terms for content, coding, and advertising is vital to search engine marketing.

SHOPPING ADS
are e-commerce ads appearing above search results as product images; formerly called Product Listing Ads (PLAs) and specific to e-commerce, they  appear based on searches including words in the product’s attributes, description, or title.

SITE RETARGETING
is cookie-based advertising based on a user’s site visit or a visit to an individual page on a site and is retargeting’s most common form; these ads can appear on any site within the ad network brokering the ads, and can be targeted various ways, such as when a certain page such as a landing page has been visited and an action such as a conversion has not been completed.

SOCIAL COMMERCE
is direct sales through social media channels, and is sometimes shortened to “s-commerce” (or “f-commerce” for “Facebook commerce”), similar to “e-commerce” for electronic commerce.

SOCIAL MEDIA
are online media in which content is provided primarily through user submission. Many different forms of social media exist, from older formats such as forums, chat rooms, and blogs, to newer formats such as wikis, podcasts, image and video sharing, networking sites, virtual reality, and more.

SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING (SMM)
promotes a product or service using the different tools and strategies available through social media, combining conventional online advertising already native to social networks with new “shareworthy” content creation made to be promoted by social media users to followers through their own accounts; an effective program for reaching very specific demographics.

SOCIAL NETWORKING
platforms allow users to interact with each other and create or change site content and are now used also for business marketing and advertising; sites focus on user stories and personal pages (e.g. LinkedIn and Facebook); photographs (e.g. Instagram and Flickr), microblogging by users to personal communities of followers (e.g. Twitter); or post, share, or recommend information and websites for others (e.g. del.icio.us and Reddit;), also called social news sites or social bookmarking sites. A growing number of social networking sites is focused on mobile devices and geographic location (e.g., Foursquare).

SPAM
is unwanted messages or data sent via email or information posted as web content to manipulate search results. Spam email is well known enough to have inspired federal legislation, the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003. To a search engine spam is content harmful to the creation of relevant, high quality search results; some have formal guidelines about spamming, but in general any manipulation of search results may be considered spamming; such as the creation of non-sequitur doorway pages designed to attract search engine algorithms rather than human readers, or redundant and excessive search term repetition on a site or page.

SPIDER
is a search engine algorithm that crawls through all parts of a website to gather information used to include the site in natural listings and to determine its ranking in connection with various search terms.

STICKINESS
refers to the attractiveness of a website: the frequency with which visitors return and how long they stay while they’re on it. Frequent updates, news feeds, exclusive content, special deals, and interactive features are some ways sites are made stickier.

STRUCTURED SNIPPETS
allow ads to highlight targeted details about products and services before visitors click through to a site; a kind of ad extension, they provide context and background.

SUBMISSION
means submitting a URL for search engine indexing, either manually via an online form or via an automated program; submission generally does not guarantee listing unless it’s paid for. It also doesn’t aid in improving search ranking with crawler-based search without website SEO.

THE T’s

TAGS
are words or phrases used in site content to describe and categorize blog posts, videos, pictures, and other media and content; tags improve user experience by organizing material and improve search visibility through SEO and social media optimization.

TAKEOVER ADS
are display ads typically reserved for high profile brands, products and events such as sporting events on high traffic online sites and commonly appearing on homepages of sites; often called a “homepage take over,” this tactic means the advertiser occupies every available ad spot in a page layout, and sometimes also incorporates its material into the site background or an interactive component.

TARGETING
means shaping marketing campaigns to attract specific cohorts of prospective clients; behavioral targeting is a newer, more specific type of targeting based on behavior rather than demographics.

TOPIC MODELING
is an SEO strategy optimizing content based on a primary keyword selected for a page; the basic process is—identify keywords related to the primary keyword’s general subject to use as secondary keywords. Then build content  with the new keywords to increase a page’s robustness in primary keyword search.

TEXT AD
a words-only online ad; paid listings on the big search engines are currently text ads, but video ads will become increasingly common in the near future.

THREE-WAY LINKING
creates two one-way links between sites that want to complete a link exchange. In this tactic, one owner typically has access to multiple sites;  after adding an external link from one site to a second, then the second externally links to a third domain. Therefore, a three-way link exchange is completed when Site 1 links to Site 2, and Site 2 links to Site 3.

TLD
is Top Level Domain—which is whatever comes at the end of a domain name at its root – meaning without page names. So for example, the TLD for ESPN is “.com.”

TRACKING CODE
is information typically included in a URL that can be used in tracking and evaluation of an ad’s effectiveness, such as search term and referring search engine.

TRUEVIEW ADS
are in-stream and in-display video created using Google Ads: in-stream ads appear before Youtube videos; and in-display ads, in YouTube search results, videos, or Youtube partner sites.

THE U’s

URL
means “Uniform Resource Locator; the letters and symbols comprising specific web addresses.

UNIQUE VALUE PROPOSITION (UVP)
is the qualities and characteristics that differentiate a company and its products and services from competitors, and the reasons potential customers should be interested in it.

UNIVERSAL SEARCH
puts multiple types of results in a general search so that a user receives images, videos, local search results, news articles, and other material in addition to general web pages (also called blended search).

USABILITY
is a measure of user ease in website navigation and the finding of desired information.

USER-GENERATED CONTENT (UGC)
is usually posted via social media or directly on a business’s or brand’s website and is produced by sites users or customers or followers; this type of content can help increase community engagement, add different voices and tones to web content, and help companies gather information on market perceptions and customer experiences.

THE V’s

VIDEO MARKETING
uses online viewers consumption of video as a way to promote a company, a product, or a service; thanks to the prevalence of mobile device use, video can be an easy viral marketing or communication strategy, a way to live stream events, and a tool for a variety of other marketing uses.

VIRAL MARKETING
is aspiring to make advertisements so interesting that online viewers will share them with others in the digital equivalent of word of mouth advertising.

WEBINAR
is a virtual seminar that allows anyone anywhere in the world to participate via the internet, and offers a low-cost way to reach out to a geographically dispersed audience.

WEIBO
is the Chinese equivalent of Twitter; and is actually two major competing Weibo services: Sina Weibo (#1) and Tencent Weibo (#2). Weibo’s key advantage over Twitter is the amount of information Mandarin characters can convey; 140 characters on Weibo can carry as much information as two English paragraphs.

WHITE HAT SEO
describes ethical, legitimate, and search-engine accepted Search Engine Optimization (SEO) methods; in contrast, Black Hat SEO can mean a website’s rankings tank—or the site may be banned altogether, even if the black hat tactics aren’t formally barred by search engines.

WIKI
is a site whose content is wholly user controlled, user written, and user edited, and anyone can be a user; Wikipedia remains the best known example.

WORDPRESS
is a popular Content Management System originally developed for blogs but now used for full website creation and known for its flexibility and functionality.

XML
is Extensible Markup Language, which content developers use with text, audio, and visual material in order to allow users to customize their site experience and use data at their own pace: XML is a large part of the evolution of the web toward Web 2.0, which emphasizes ease of use, user generated content, interactive culture, and interoperability among different software and hardware.

YANDEX
is one of world’s fastest growing search engines, serving primarily Russia and other Eastern Bloc countries and using a Cyrillic engine, although it has experimented with an English-based version; Yandex Direct is its Google Ads-like paid search program.

Z-INDEX
is a property of CSS that allows a designer to better control positioning of overlapping elements on a web page; sometimes this is used for black hat SEO purposes.

301 REDIRECT
is a command that—in contrast to a 302 Redirect, which is temporary— automatically causes a URL to redirect to another URL and codes this as permanent for the Web and search engines. 301 redirects are generally preferable for Search Engine Optimization purposes and are often referred to as search engine friendly redirects.

404 SERVER CODE
is a standard response code (the “Not Found” error message) indicating that the user’s computer was able to communicate with a given server, but the server could not find whatever was requested by the user.

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